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Theological-political treatise
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Spinoza, Benedictus de, (1632-1677.)

Theological-political treatise / Benedict de Spinoza ; edited by Jonathan Israel ; translated by Michael Silverthorne and Jonathan Israel.

Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Cambridge texts in the history of philosophy

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Abstract: Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise (1670) is one of the most important philosophical works of the early modern period. In it Spinoza discusses at length the historical circumstances of the composition and transmission of the Bible, demonstrating the fallibility of both its authors and its interpreters. He argues that free enquiry is not only consistent with the security and prosperity of a state but actually essential to them, and that such freedom flourishes best in a democratic and republican state in which individuals are left free while religious organizations are subordinated to the secular power. His Treatise has profoundly influenced the subsequent history of political thought, Enlightenment 'clandestine' or radical philosophy, Bible hermeneutics, and textual criticism more generally. It is presented here in a new translation of great clarity and accuracy by Michael Silverthorne and Jonathan Israel, with a substantial historical and philosophical introduction by Jonathan Israel.

The heavenly city of the eighteenth-century philosophers
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Libri Moderni

Becker, Carl L. (1873-1945.)

The heavenly city of the eighteenth-century philosophers / by Carl L. Becker.

New Haven : Yale Univeristy Press, [1991]

Abstract: This title challenges the belief that the 18th century was essentially modern in its temper. Carl Becker demonstrates that the period commonly described as the Age of Reason was, in fact, very far from that; that Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, and Locke were living in a medieval world, and that these philosophers "demolished the Heavenly City of St. Augustine only to rebuild it with more up-to-date materials". In a new foreword, Johnson Kent Wright looks at the book's continuing relevance within the context of current discussion about the Enlightenment.

Against the academicians
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Libri Moderni

Augustine <Saint, Bishop of Hippo.>

Against the academicians ; The teacher / Augustine ; translated, with introduction and notes by Peter King.

Indianapolis : Hackett Pub. Co., c1995.

Abstract: These new translations of two treatises dealing with the possibility and nature of knowledge in the face of skeptical challenges are the first to be rendered from the Latin critical edition, the first to be made specifically with a philosophical audience in mind, and the first to be translated by a scholar with expertise in both modern epistemology and philosophy of language.